Calf welfare

Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2008 Mar;24(1):191-203. doi: 10.1016/j.cvfa.2007.12.001.


Many factors contribute to the well-being of calves on the commercial dairy including housing and environment; nutritional and health programs; handling and caretaker interactions; herd dynamics; and the common management practices of transportation, euthanasia, dehorning, and teat removal. Ensuring and assessing the welfare of calves on commercial dairies is a complex challenge, especially because the terminology and factors contributing to assessing animal welfare in agricultural animals, such as dairy calves, has not been clearly defined within the scientific community.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animal Husbandry / methods*
  • Animal Husbandry / standards
  • Animal Welfare*
  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Cattle / growth & development
  • Cattle / physiology*
  • Dairying / methods*
  • Dairying / standards
  • Female
  • Housing, Animal / standards