Ogg1 DNA repair enzyme recognizes and excises oxidative stress-caused 8-hydroxyl-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) from GC base-pairs. Ogg1 knockout mice are phenotypically normal, but exhibit elevated levels of 8-OHdG in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, as well as moderately elevated mutagenesis and spontaneous lung tumors and UV-induced skin tumors. To elucidate the mechanistic role of inflammation-caused oxidative stress in carcinogenesis, the development of chronic ulcerative colitis (UC)-induced carcinoma in Ogg1 knockout mice was studied using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC model without the use of a carcinogen. Ogg1 (-/-), Ogg1 (+/-), and wild type C57BL/6 mice were subjected to long-term, cyclic DSS treatment to induce chronic UC and carcinogenesis. In wild type C57BL/6 control mice after 15 cycles of DSS treatment, colorectal adenocarcinoma incidence was 24.1% (7/29 mice), with a tumor volume of 27.9 +/- 5.2 mm(3). Ogg1 (-/-) mice showed significantly increased adenocarcinoma development in the colon with a tumor incidence of 57.1% (12 of 21 mice, P < 0.05) and a tumor volume of 35.1 +/- 6.1 mm(3). Ogg1 mice (+/-) also exhibited significantly increased tumor development in the colon with a tumor incidence of 50.0% (13/26 mice) and a tumor volume of 29.1 +/- 7.2 mm(3). Histopathologic analyses revealed that colorectal tumors were well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinomas or mucinous carcinoma and adjacent colonic mucosa showed mild to moderate chronic UC. Using immunohistochemical approaches, Ogg1 (-/-) and (+/-) mice exhibited similar numbers and staining intensities of macrophages in UC areas as seen in Ogg1 (+/+) mice, but markedly increased numbers and staining intensities of 8-OHdG positive inflammatory and epithelial cells. These results provide important evidence on the relationship between inflammation-caused oxidative stress, DNA repair enzyme Ogg1, and carcinogenesis.
(c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.