Role of symptoms in diagnosis and outcome of gastric cancer

World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Feb 28;14(8):1149-55. doi: 10.3748/wjg.14.1149.


Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers and the second most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Apart from Japan, where screening programmes have resulted in early diagnosis in asymptomatic patients, in most countries the diagnosis of gastric cancers is invariably made on account on dyspeptic and alarm symptoms, which may also be of prognostic significance when reported by the patient at diagnosis. However, their use as selection criteria for endoscopy seems to be inconsistent since alarm symptoms are not sufficiently sensitive to detect malignancies. In fact, the overall prevalence of these symptoms in dyspeptic patients is high, while the prevalence of gastro-intestinal cancer is very low. Moreover, symptoms of early stage cancer may be indistinguishable from those of benign dyspepsia, while the presence of alarm symptoms may imply an advanced and often inoperable disease. The features of dyspeptic and alarm symptoms may reflect the pathology of the tumour and be of prognostic value in suggesting site, stage and aggressiveness of cancer. Alarm symptoms in gastric cancer are independently related to survival and an increased number, as well as specific alarm symptoms, are closely correlated to the risk of death. Dysphagia, weight loss and a palpable abdominal mass appear to be major independent prognostic factors in gastric cancer, while gastro-intestinal bleeding, vomiting and also duration of symptoms, do not seem to have a relevant prognostic impact on survival in gastric cancer.

Publication types

  • Editorial
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Endoscopy
  • Gastroenterology / methods*
  • Humans
  • Medical Oncology / methods
  • Neoplasm Staging / methods
  • Primary Health Care / methods
  • Prognosis
  • Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Stomach Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Treatment Outcome