Background: Inflammation has been strongly implicated in prostate carcinogenesis, but the precise molecular mechanisms linking inflammation and carcinogenic DNA damage are not known. Induction of the polyamine catabolic enzyme, spermine oxidase (SMO) has been linked to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and DNA damage in human gastric and lung epithelial cells and suggest direct mechanistic links between inflammation, SMO activity, ROS production, and epithelial carcinogenesis that are likely relevant in prostate cancer.
Methods: Tissue microarrays consisting of matched normal and diseased specimens from patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), or proliferative inflammatory atrophy (PIA), as well as unaffected individuals, were stained for SMO expression and analyzed using image analysis techniques and TMAJ software tools.
Results: Average SMO staining was significantly higher in prostate cancer and PIN tissues compared to patient-matched benign tissues. Benign tissues from prostate cancer, PIN, and PIA patients also exhibited significantly higher mean SMO expression versus tissues from prostate disease-free patients.
Conclusions: Tissues from patients diagnosed with prostate cancer and PIN exhibit, on average, locally increased SMO expression in regions of prostatic disease and higher overall SMO expression in prostatic epithelial cells compared to healthy individuals. Further studies are warranted to directly examine the role of SMO-produced ROS in prostate carcinogenesis.
(c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.