Sjögren's syndrome sufferers have increased oral yeast levels despite regular dental care

Oral Dis. 2008 Mar;14(2):163-73. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2007.01368.x.


Aim: To investigate the prevalence and quantity of oral yeasts and their association with oral candidiasis in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients receiving regular dental care.

Materials and methods: Yeasts in oral rinse and full-mouth supra-gingival plaque samples from 25 primary SS, 27 secondary SS and 29 control subjects were selectively cultured. All yeasts except single-species isolates were genotyped using pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).

Results: Ten (19%) SS sufferers had symptomless candidiasis. SS subjects had a higher prevalence (73%vs 7%) and quantity of yeasts than controls in both oral rinse and plaque samples (P < 0.05). The prevalence of yeasts in plaque was associated with candidiasis regardless of denture wearing (P < or = 0.04). Candida albicans was the predominant yeast isolated. PFGE showed 20 (66% of total) C. albicans isolate pairs, i.e. C. albicans species isolated from plaque and oral rinse samples of the same individual, were of closely related genetic clonal types (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: Despite effective oral hygiene, more SS subjects than controls had detectable levels of oral yeasts and their presence in supra-gingival plaque was associated with candidiasis. Candida albicans colonized supra-gingival biofilm even in well-maintained SS individuals, posing a challenge to the control of oral candidiasis.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Candida / isolation & purification*
  • Candidiasis, Oral / complications
  • Candidiasis, Oral / diagnosis
  • Candidiasis, Oral / prevention & control*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Colony Count, Microbial
  • Dental Plaque / microbiology*
  • Dentures
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Matched-Pair Analysis
  • Middle Aged
  • Oral Hygiene / methods*
  • Reference Values
  • Saliva / microbiology
  • Sjogren's Syndrome / classification
  • Sjogren's Syndrome / complications
  • Sjogren's Syndrome / microbiology*
  • Statistics, Nonparametric