We investigated the change of the mRNA levels of sulfotransferase and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase isoforms by the prototypical microsomal enzyme inducers rifampicin (Rif), dexamethasone (Dex), and omeprazole (Ome) in primary cultures of cryopreserved human and cynomolgus monkey hepatocytes. Real-time RT-PCR analysis was performed using primers and TaqMan probes. Rif, Dex, and Ome increased SULT2A1 mRNA level in both human and cynomolgus monkey hepatocytes in dose-dependent manner, but not SULT1A1 mRNA level. Rif, Dex, and Ome increased the mRNA level of UGT1A1 in both human and cynomolgus monkey hepatocytes, Ome more potently in humans and Rif and Ome more potently in monkeys. They also increased the mRNA levels of UGT1A6 and UGT1A9 in cynomolgus monkey hepatocytes, though the extent of elevation of UGT1A6 and UGT1A9 mRNA levels was smaller than that of UGT1A1 mRNA level. Furthermore, these inducers scarcely affected UGT1A6 and UGT1A9 in human hepatocytes. Rif, Dex, and Ome also showed no remarkable effect on the mRNA levels of UGT2Bs in human or cynomolgus monkey hepatocytes. We also studied in detail the time course of mRNA expression of these enzymes in primary cultures of hepatocytes. In conclusion, the results of the present study show that primary cultures of hepatocytes isolated from the cynomolgus monkey liver are as useful as human hepatocytes for evaluating the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes in preclinical studies.