The infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is not only associated with a dysfunction of the immune system. Other organs are often affected in patients with HIV-infection, as well. In particular, an increased cardiovascular risk profile leads to an increasing rate of morbidity and mortality due to cardiac disorders, including heart failure and HIV-associated cardiomyopathy in this patient population. However, not only classic risk factors such as smoking, hypertension or dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolisms are the reasons of HIV-associated myocardial dysfunction. Especially these subjects are also prone to opportunistic infections, side effects of antiretroviral therapy or the HI-virus itself.