The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF) treatment on body composition and serum adiponectin levels of women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Nineteen women with RA starting anti-TNF treatment were included in the study. Disease activity, body composition, lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) and serum adiponectin concentrations were measured at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up. No important changes on body composition and lumbar spine BMD were observed, while the serum levels of adiponectin levels increased after 1 year of anti-TNF treatment (p = 0.02). Anti-TNF treatment in women with RA does not have any significant effect on body composition; however, it is associated with increase in adiponectin levels which may ameliorate the systemic inflammatory response state associated with RA.