Investigation of particle-functionalized tissue engineering scaffolds using X-ray tomographic microscopy

Biotechnol Bioeng. 2008 Jul 1;100(4):820-9. doi: 10.1002/bit.21796.


A low-density, porous chitosan/poly-(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticle composite scaffold was produced by thermally induced phase separation followed by lyophilization, to provide a bicontinuous microstructure potentially suitable for tissue engineering and locally controlled drug release. PLGA particles were mixed into the chitosan solution and subsequent phase separation during chitosan solidification forced PLGA particles into chitosan phase (Plateau borders). The distributions of volume, surface area, and elongation of 15,422 inclusions of agglomerated PLGA particles were calculated and approximated with log-normal distribution functions from nanotomography reconstructions. Cluster analysis revealed a homogenous inclusion distribution throughout the scaffold. The spatial location and orientation of individual inclusions within the Plateau borders of the scaffold were determined and from these the nearest-neighbor inter-inclusion distance distribution calculated, showing a mean of 2.5 microm. The depth of the inclusions in Plateau borders peaks at 700 or 125 nm, respectively, indicating a step-wise drug release from inclusions successively exposed during scaffold decomposition. Particle diameter ranged from 400 nm to 3 microm and inclusion Feret lengths ranged from 800 nm to 12 microm. These findings on composite morphology and distribution of inclusions are fundamental for predicting scaffold deterioration and particle-mediated drug release during ex vivo and in vivo cell cultivation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Absorptiometry, Photon
  • Biocompatible Materials / analysis*
  • Biocompatible Materials / chemistry*
  • Chitosan / chemistry
  • Cluster Analysis
  • Lactic Acid / chemistry
  • Materials Testing / methods
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Particle Size
  • Polyglycolic Acid / chemistry
  • Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer
  • Surface Properties
  • Tissue Engineering / methods
  • Tissue Scaffolds / chemistry*


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Polylactic Acid-Polyglycolic Acid Copolymer
  • Polyglycolic Acid
  • Lactic Acid
  • Chitosan