Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 252 (1-2), 27-56

Sympathetic Modulation of Immunity: Relevance to Disease


Sympathetic Modulation of Immunity: Relevance to Disease

Denise L Bellinger et al. Cell Immunol.


Optimal host defense against pathogens requires cross-talk between the nervous and immune systems. This paper reviews sympathetic-immune interaction, one major communication pathway, and its importance for health and disease. Sympathetic innervation of primary and secondary immune organs is described, as well as evidence for neurotransmission with cells of the immune system as targets. Most research thus far has focused on neural-immune modulation in secondary lymphoid organs, has revealed complex sympathetic modulation resulting in both potentiation and inhibition of immune functions. SNS-immune interaction may enhance immune readiness during disease- or injury-induced 'fight' responses. Research also indicate that dysregulation of the SNS can significantly affect the progression of immune-mediated diseases. However, a better understanding of neural-immune interactions is needed to develop strategies for treatment of immune-mediated diseases that are designed to return homeostasis and restore normal functioning neural-immune networks.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 59 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles


LinkOut - more resources