Neurofibromatosis 1 is a multisystem disorder that primarily involves the skin and nervous system. Its population prevalence is 1 in 3500. The condition usually is recognized in early childhood, when cutaneous manifestations are apparent. Although neurofibromatosis 1 is associated with marked clinical variability, most affected children do well from the standpoint of their growth and development. Some features of neurofibromatosis 1 are present at birth, and others are age-related abnormalities of tissue proliferation, which necessitate periodic monitoring to address ongoing health and developmental needs and to minimize the risk of serious medical complications. This clinical report provides a review of the clinical criteria needed to establish a diagnosis, the inheritance pattern of neurofibromatosis 1, its major clinical and developmental manifestations, and guidelines for monitoring and providing intervention to maximize the growth, development, and health of an affected child.