Acinetobacter baumannii is an important cause of nosocomial infections, mainly in patients in intensive care units. This microorganism, although with slight differences depending on the country, presents resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents, occasionally including resistance to colistin: hence, it can be considered the paradigm of nosocomial multiresistant bacteria. This review analyzes the evolution of antimicrobial resistance and the molecular bases associated with the increase in antimicrobial resistance, as well as the current treatment of Acinetobacter infections. Although controversy remains, the pooled data suggest that infections by A. baumannii may be associated with considerable attributable mortality. Moreover, in cases of pneumonia and bacteraemia, inappropriate treatment is associated with, among other factors, mortality. Therefore, treatment should be carefully considered.