To identify determinants of left ventricular (LV) structure and stress-corrected systolic function in men and women with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS), Doppler echocardiography was performed at baseline in 1,046 men and 674 women 28 to 86 years of age (mean 67 +/- 10) recruited in the Simvastatin Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis (SEAS) study evaluating placebo-controlled combined simvastatin and ezetimibe treatment in AS. LV hypertrophy was less prevalent in women despite older age, higher systolic blood pressure, and smaller aortic valve area/body surface area (all p values <0.05). In logistic regression analyses, LV hypertrophy was independently associated with male gender, severity of AS, hypertension, higher systolic blood pressure, and lower stress-corrected midwall shortening (scMWS) or stress-corrected fractional shortening (scFS; all p values <0.01). In men aortic regurgitation also was a predictor of LV hypertrophy (p <0.05). Women had greater scFS and scMWS when corrected for LV size or geometry (all p values <0.001). In multivariate analyses, female gender predicted 11% greater scFS and 4% greater scMWS independent of age, body mass index, heart rate, aortic valve area, LV mass, relative wall thickness, aortic regurgitation, hypertension, and end-systolic stress (R(2) = 0.23 and 0.59, respectively, p <0.001). In conclusion, the major determinants of LV hypertrophy in patients with asymptomatic AS are male gender, severity of AS, and concomitant hypertension. Women have higher stress-corrected indexes of systolic function independent of LV geometry or size, wall stress, older age, or more concomitant hypertension.