LKB1 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are serine-threonine kinases implicated in key cellular pathways, including polarity establishment and energy sensing, respectively. Recent in vivo analyses in Drosophila have demonstrated vital roles for both AMPK and LKB1--in part through the myosin regulatory light chain--in cell polarity and cell division. Evidence from mammalian experiments also supports non-metabolic functions for LKB1 and AMPK. This review examines unanticipated AMPK functions for initiating and maintaining cell polarity and completing normal cell division. The ability of AMPK to sense energy status might be coupled with fundamental cell biological functions.