Molecular modeling and structure-activity relationship studies were performed to propose a model for binding of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) to the human serotonin transporter (hSERT). Homology models were constructed using the crystal structure of a bacterial homologue, the leucine transporter from Aquifex aeolicus, as the template and three slightly different sequence alignments. Induced fit docking of 5-HT into hSERT homology models resulted in two different binding modes. Both show a salt bridge between Asp98 and the charged primary amine of 5-HT, and both have the 5-HT C6 position of the indole ring pointing toward Ala173. The difference between the two orientations of 5-HT is an enantiofacial discrimination of the indole ring, resulting in the 5-hydroxyl group of 5-HT being vicinal to either Ser438/Thr439 or Ala169/Ile172/Ala173. To assess the binding experimentally, binding affinities for 5-HT and 17 analogues toward wild type and 13 single point mutants of hSERT were measured using an approach termed paired mutant-ligand analogue complementation (PaMLAC). The proposed ligand-protein interaction was systematically examined by disrupting it through site-directed mutagenesis and re-establishing another interaction via a ligand analogue matching the mutated residue, thereby minimizing the risk of identifying indirect effects. The interactions between Asp98 and the primary amine of 5-HT and the interaction between the C6-position of 5-HT and hSERT position 173 was confirmed using PaMLAC. The measured binding affinities of various mutants and 5-HT analogues allowed for a distinction between the two proposed binding modes of 5-HT and biochemically support the model for 5-HT binding in hSERT where the 5-hydroxyl group is in close proximity to Thr439.