Background & objective: Genetic polymorphisms in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene are related to bone mineral density, bone turnover, and diseases with bone loss. Alveolar bone loss is a key feature in periodontitis. The aim of this study was to determine whether severe generalized chronic periodontitis (CP) in a Turkish population was associated with polymorphisms in the VDR gene.
Methods: Samples of venous blood and DNA were obtained from 72 patients with severe generalized chronic periodontitis and 102 healthy controls. The polymorphic regions were amplified using PCR followed by digestion with restriction enzymes BsmI A/G(rs1544410), ApaI G/T(rs11168271), TaqI T/C(rs731236), and analyzed electrophoretically. Genotype and allele frequencies were calculated.
Results: There were no statistically significant differences in the frequencies of VDR BsmI, ApaI, TaqI genotypes between the CP patients and healthy controls. The GTT haplotype, constructed from the three adjacent restriction fragment length polymorphisms was found to be over-represented among CP cases. This corresponded an OR of 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 1.12-5.18) for heterozygous carriers and 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 0.95-5.4) for homozygous carrier of the risk haplotype.
Interpretation & conclusion: The present findings indicated that BsmI, ApaI, TaqI polymorphisms of the VDR gene were not associated with the severe generalized CP in the studied Turkish patients. Moreover, the VDR genotypes based on haplotype analysis may be associated with chronic periodontitis. In the future, diagnostic periodontal risk assessments like polymorphisms may be useful in detection of individuals susceptible for periodontitis.