An experiment was performed to examine the effect of dietary copper supplementation on weight gain, neuropeptide Y (NPY) concentration and NPY mRNA expression level in the hypothalamus of pigs. Forty-five crossbred pigs were randomly assigned to three groups of 15 pigs, each comprising five replicates of 3 animals. Pigs were allocated to diets that contained 10mg/kg (as a control), 125 and 250 mg/kg copper as CuSO4. Live weight gain and feed conversion efficiency was determined at the end of the experiment and five pigs, selected at random from each group, were slaughtered and the hypothalami collected for determination of NPY concentration and NPY mRNA expression level. The results showed that average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were higher and feed:gain (F:G) ratio was lower in pigs fed the diets with 125 and 250 mg/kg copper (P<0.05), respectively, than in pigs fed a diet with 10 mg/kg copper, but that there was no statistically significant difference in growth performance between animals of the 125 mg/kg and the 250 mg/kg copper groups. Furthermore, pigs fed diets with 125 and 250 mg/kg copper had higher NPY concentrations and NPY mRNA expression levels in their hypothalamus than control animals. The data indicated that 125 and 250 mg/kg copper gave similar responses in terms of weight gain, whilst high dietary copper could enhance NPY concentration and NPY mRNA expression level in the hypothalamus of pigs. High dietary copper appears to increase feed intake and promote weight gain by enhancing NPY concentration and NPY mRNA expression level in the hypothalamus of pigs.