Prospective study of the association between fluoride intake and dental fluorosis in permanent teeth

Caries Res. 2008;42(2):125-33. doi: 10.1159/000119520. Epub 2008 Mar 4.


Objective: To evaluate the relationship between fluoride intake and dental fluorosis in permanent central incisors and first molars.

Methods: Fluoride intake (mg F/kg body weight/day) from diet, dentifrice and both combined was determined on a single occasion in 1998 among children aged 19-39 months living in two fluoridated Brazilian communities (0.6-0.8 ppm F). Six years later, when the permanent teeth of these children had erupted (central incisors and first molars), 49 children aged 7-9 years [20 girls (40.8%) and 29 boys (58.2%)] were evaluated for dental fluorosis. To test the association between fluorosis and fluoride intake, children were dichotomized into two groups, cases (children with dental fluorosis on at least two teeth, TFI > or =1) and noncases (children without dental fluorosis, TFI = 0).

Results: Among the case group (n = 29), median fluoride doses from diet, dentifrice and combined were 0.031, 0.050 and 0.083 mg F/kg/day, respectively. Among the noncase group (n = 20), median fluoride doses were 0.029, 0.049, 0.084 mg F/kg/day, respectively. There was no association between dental fluorosis in permanent teeth and fluoride intake from diet, dentifrice and combined (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: There was no difference between children with and without fluorosis in the permanent central incisors and first molars regarding fluoride intake. However, this study has limitations that must be recognized: fluoride intake was only measured once, and there were no children in the sample with severe degrees of dental fluorosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cariostatic Agents / adverse effects*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Colombia
  • Dental Enamel / drug effects
  • Dentifrices / adverse effects*
  • Dentifrices / chemistry
  • Dentition, Permanent
  • Diet / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Fluoridation / adverse effects
  • Fluorides / administration & dosage
  • Fluorides / adverse effects*
  • Fluorosis, Dental / etiology*
  • Humans
  • Incisor / pathology
  • Male
  • Molar / pathology
  • Prospective Studies
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Cariostatic Agents
  • Dentifrices
  • Fluorides