At the bottom of the differential diagnosis list: unusual causes of pediatric hypertension

Pediatr Nephrol. 2009 Nov;24(11):2137-46. doi: 10.1007/s00467-008-0744-y. Epub 2008 Mar 5.


Hypertension affects 1-5% of children and adolescents, and the incidence has been increasing in association with obesity. However, secondary causes of hypertension such as renal parenchymal diseases, congenital abnormalities and renovascular disorders still remain the leading cause of pediatric hypertension, particularly in children under 12 years old. Other less common causes of hypertension in children and adolescents, including immobilization, burns, illicit and prescription drugs, dietary supplements, genetic disorders, and tumors will be addressed in this review.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Humans
  • Hypercalcemia / complications
  • Hypercalcemia / diagnosis*
  • Hypertension / diagnosis*
  • Hypertension / etiology
  • Kidney Neoplasms / complications
  • Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Substance-Related Disorders / complications
  • Substance-Related Disorders / diagnosis*
  • Vascular Diseases / complications
  • Vascular Diseases / diagnosis*