Challenging stereotyping and bias: a voice simulation study

J Nurs Educ. 2008 Feb;47(2):59-65. doi: 10.3928/01484834-20080201-07.


Stigma is a barrier to mental health care access for patients with schizophrenia and can interfere with developing therapeutic relationships. This study demonstrates success of a voice simulation experience during orientation in changing the biases of nursing students and the effect on the development of the nurse-patient relationship. Ninety-four individuals participated; 52 received a voice simulation experience during orientation, and 42 received orientation with no voice simulation experience. The Medical Condition Regard Scale was administered before and after orientation. Posttest paired t test results show significant differences in attitudes toward patients with voice hearing experiences between the two groups. The themes of personal growth from the focus groups postorientation include Affective Experience, Physical Experience, and Empathy. Findings demonstrate that the orientation process should include methods to challenge stereotyping and bias to decrease stigma, improve service access, and enhance the ability to develop therapeutic relationships.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Attitude of Health Personnel*
  • Comprehension
  • Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate / methods*
  • Female
  • Focus Groups
  • Hallucinations* / nursing
  • Hallucinations* / psychology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nurse-Patient Relations
  • Nursing Education Research
  • Nursing Methodology Research
  • Prejudice
  • Psychiatric Nursing / education
  • Psychiatric Nursing / methods
  • Qualitative Research
  • Role Playing
  • Stereotyping*
  • Students, Nursing / psychology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Tape Recording / methods*