In many industrialized nations of the world it is estimated that nearly 10% of young people have chronic conditions; nearly one third have limitations of functioning. The most common conditions include hay fever, chronic sinusitis, acne, and asthma. Dramatic strides in medical management of chronic conditions in industrialized nations have resulted in nearly 85% of children born today with a congenital anomaly living at least until the age of 20. Not only are children with previously fatal conditions living until adulthood, but more of them are increasingly being mainstreamed into community settings. There is a diverse set of issue of which the clinician needs to be cognizant to successfully work with youth with chronic illness and disabilities as well as their parents.