T-cell quality in memory and protection: implications for vaccine design

Nat Rev Immunol. 2008 Apr;8(4):247-58. doi: 10.1038/nri2274. Epub 2008 Mar 7.


T cells mediate effector functions through a variety of mechanisms. Recently, multiparameter flow cytometry has allowed a simultaneous assessment of the phenotype and multiple effector functions of single T cells; the delineation of T cells into distinct functional populations defines the quality of the response. New evidence suggests that the quality of T-cell responses is crucial for determining the disease outcome to various infections. This Review highlights the importance of using multiparameter flow cytometry to better understand the functional capacity of effector and memory T-cell responses, thereby enabling the development of preventative and therapeutic vaccine strategies for infections.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Humans
  • Immunologic Memory*
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Vaccines / immunology*


  • Vaccines