Metabolic risk factors in children with kidney stone disease

Pediatr Nephrol. 2008 Jul;23(7):1129-33. doi: 10.1007/s00467-008-0769-2. Epub 2008 Mar 7.


The evaluation of metabolic risk factor in children with renal stone disease is the basis of medical treatment aimed at preventing recurrent stone events and the growth of preexisting calculi. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the metabolic risk factors and clinical and family histories of 90 children with kidney stone disease who had been referred to our institution and subjected to clinical tests using a standardized protocol. The mean age of our pediatric patients was 10.7 years, and the male:female ratio was 1.14:1.0. Biochemical abnormalities were found in 84.4% of all cases. A single urine metabolic risk factor was present in 52.2% (n = 47) of the patients, and multiple risk factors were present in the remaining 31.1% (n = 28). Idiopathic hypercalciuria (alone or in combination) and hypocitraturia (alone or in combination) were the most frequent risk factors identified in 40 and 37.8% of these patients, respectively. Renal colic or unspecified abdominal pain were the most frequent forms of presentation (76.9%), with 97.5% of stones located in the upper urinary tract. In most patients, stone disease was confirmed by renal ultrasonography (77%). A positive family history in first-degree and second-degree relatives was found in 46.2 and 32.5% of the cases, respectively. We conclude that specific urine metabolic risk factors are found in most children with kidney stones and that hypocitraturia is as frequent as hypercalciuria. Very often there is a positive family history of renal stone disease in first- and second-degree relatives.

MeSH terms

  • Abdominal Pain / etiology
  • Adolescent
  • Argentina
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Citrates / urine
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Hematuria / etiology
  • Humans
  • Hypercalciuria / complications
  • Hypercalciuria / urine
  • Hyperoxaluria / complications
  • Hyperoxaluria / urine
  • Kidney Calculi / complications
  • Kidney Calculi / etiology*
  • Kidney Calculi / pathology
  • Kidney Calculi / urine
  • Magnesium / urine
  • Male
  • Pedigree
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Uric Acid / urine


  • Citrates
  • Uric Acid
  • Magnesium