A systematic review was performed to examine renal function in patients with invasive fungal infections, comparing the nephrotoxicity caused by conventional amphotericin B deoxycholate (c-AmB) with that induced by the use of lipid-based amphotericin B formulations. The analysis considered all comparative studies published in the literature between January 1996 and May 2007. The outcome data reviewed herein focused on renal toxicity as measured by serum creatinine (S-Cr) and the doubling or the mean difference in S-Cr levels from baseline to the end of therapy or the need for dialysis. We found that AmB lipid complex (ABLC), liposomal AmB (L-AmB) and AmB colloidal dispersion (ABCD) were significantly less nephrotoxic than c-AmB in all reported studies. ABLC and L-AmB caused low and comparable nephrotoxicity in nine studies. In one randomized study, L-AmB was significantly less nephrotoxic than ABLC. No studies compared ABCD nephrotoxicity to the other lipid formulations. Based on our review we conclude that lipid formulations of amphotericin B are an important strategy to preserve renal function and improve survival in critically ill patients who require treatment for systemic fungal infections.