Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) specifically induces the growth of myeloid progenitors and their maturation into neutrophils and macrophages. We have identified a series of previously uncharacterized hematopoietic-specific mRNAs that are expressed in myelopoietic mouse bone marrow cultures stimulated by GM-CSF. One of these messages, C10, encodes a new member of the family of cytokine-like genes related to macrophage inflammatory protein-1 (MIP-1). Members of this family are all induced by one or more stimuli related to inflammation, wound repair, or immune response. In contrast, C10 mRNA showed little or no accumulation in response to such activating agents and was greatly reduced on activation of a T-cell line. On the other hand, C10 mRNA, unlike MIP-1, was acutely stimulated during the first day of bone marrow culture in GM-CSF, and it was also strongly elevated during the induction of neutrophilic differentiation of 32D cl3 cells by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. The implications of this unusual expression pattern are discussed.