RNA editing changes more than 400 cytidines to uridines in the mRNAs of mitochondria in flowering plants. In other plants such as ferns and mosses, RNA editing reactions changing C to U and U to C are observed at almost equal frequencies. Development of transfection systems with isolated mitochondria and of in vitro systems with extracts from mitochondria has considerably improved our understanding of the recognition of specific editing sites in the last few years. These assays have also yielded information about the biochemical parameters, but the enzymes involved have not yet been identified. Here we summarize our present understanding of the process of RNA editing in flowering plant mitochondria.