Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are useful markers for genetic mapping experiments in model organisms. Here we report the establishment of a high-density SNP map and high-throughput genotyping assays for Drosophila melanogaster. Our map comprises 27,367 SNPs in common laboratory Drosophila stocks. These SNPs were clustered within 2,238 amplifiable markers at an average density of 1 marker every 50.3 kb, or 6.3 genes. We have also constructed a set of 62 Drosophila stocks, each of which facilitates the generation of recombinants within a defined genetic interval of 1-2 Mb. For flexible, high-throughput SNP genotyping, we used fluorescent tag-array mini-sequencing (TAMS) assays. We designed and validated TAMS assays for 293 SNPs at an average resolution of 391.3 kb, and demonstrated the utility of these tools by rapidly mapping 14 mutations that disrupt embryonic muscle patterning. These resources enable high-resolution high-throughput genetic mapping in Drosophila.