Background: Limited data exist on the comprehensive assessment of late medical and social effects experienced by survivors of childhood and young adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
Methods: This analysis included 272 5-year AML survivors who participated in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). All patients were diagnosed at age < or =21 years between the years 1970 and 1986, and none underwent stem cell transplantation. Rates of survival, relapse, and late outcomes were analyzed.
Results: The average follow-up was 20.5 years (range, 5-33 years). The overall survival rate was 97% at 10 years (95% confidence interval [95%CI], 94%-98%) and 94% at 20 years (95% CI, 90%-96%). Six survivors reported 8 recurrences. The cumulative incidence of recurrent AML was 6.6% at 10 years (95% CI, 3.7%-9.6%) and 8.6% at 20 years (95% CI, 5.1%-12.1%). Ten subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMN) were reported, including 4 with a history of radiation therapy, for a 20-year cumulative incidence of 1.7% (95% CI, 0.02%-3.4%). Six cardiac events were reported, for a 20-year cumulative incidence 4.7% (95% CI, 2.1%-7.3%). Half of the survivors reported a chronic medical condition and, compared with siblings, were at increased risk for severe or life-threatening chronic medical conditions (16% vs 5.8%; P < .001). Among those aged > or =25 years, the age-adjusted marriage rates were similar among survivors and the general United States population (57% for both) and lower compared with siblings (67%; P < .01). Survivors' college graduation rates were lower compared with siblings but higher than the general population (40% vs 52% vs 34%, respectively; P < .01). Employment rates were similar between survivors, siblings, and the general population (93%, 97.6%, and 95.8%, respectively).
Conclusions: Long-term survival from childhood AML > or =5-years after diagnosis was favorable. Late-occurring medical events remained a concern with socioeconomic achievement lower than expected within the individual family unit, although it was not different from the general United States population.