An unusual presentation of acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMKL) is reported in two young children. The first child had a 10-day history of ptosis of the right eyelid as the initial manifestation of AMKL, a clinical picture not previously described in this variant of leukemia. Computed tomographic scanning showed multiple intracranial mass lesions, and the diagnosis of AMKL was confirmed by immunophenotyping of bone marrow blasts. The second child had Down syndrome and received alkylating agents and radiation therapy for treatment of metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma of the orbit. She had AMKL as second malignancy. Both patients had acquired chromosome 21 anomalies in their leukemic blasts. The first patient, constitutionally normal, had an i(21q) in his leukemic blasts; the patient with constitutional trisomy 21 had tetrasomy 21 and additional chromosomal changes. The clinical symptoms and the results of morphologic, immunologic, and cytogenetic studies are discussed.