The phosphorylated form of the enhancer-binding protein NTRC has an ATPase activity that is essential for activation of transcription

Cell. 1991 Oct 4;67(1):155-67. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(91)90579-n.


The NTRC protein of enteric bacteria is an enhancer-binding protein that activates transcription in response to limitation of combined nitrogen. NTRC activates transcription by catalyzing formation of open complexes by RNA polymerase (sigma 54 holoenzyme form) in an ATP-dependent reaction. To catalyze open complex formation, NTRC must be phosphorylated. We show that phosphorylated NTRC has an ATPase activity, and we present biochemical and genetic evidence that NTRC must hydrolyze ATP to catalyze open complex formation. It is likely that all activators of sigma 54 holoenzyme have an ATPase activity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphatases / metabolism*
  • Bacterial Proteins*
  • Chromatography, Affinity
  • Chromatography, Ion Exchange
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / isolation & purification
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
  • Kinetics
  • PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins
  • Phosphorylation
  • Plasmids
  • Salmonella typhimurium / genetics*
  • Trans-Activators*
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Transcription, Genetic*


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • PII Nitrogen Regulatory Proteins
  • Trans-Activators
  • Transcription Factors
  • Adenosine Triphosphatases