Aim: To explore the contribution of AXIN1, AXIN2 and beta-catenin, components of Wnt signaling pathway, to the carcinogenesis of gastric cancer (GC), we examined AXIN1, AXIN2 exon7 and CTNNB1 (encoding beta-catenin) exon3 mutations in 70 GCs.
Methods: The presence of mutations was identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and direct DNA sequencing. Beta-catenin expression was detected by immunohistochemical analysis.
Results: Among the 70 GCs, 5 (7.1%) had mutations in one or two of these three components. A frameshift mutation (1 bp deletion) in exon7 of AXIN2 was found in one case. Four cases, including the case with a mutation in AXIN2, had frameshift mutations and missense mutations in AXIN1. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 334 C>T, 874 C>T, 1396 G>A, 1690 C>T and 1942 T>G, were identified in AXIN1. A frameshift mutation (27 bp deletion) spanning exon3 of CTNNB1 was observed in one case. All four cases with mutations in AXIN1 and AXIN2 showed nuclear beta-catenin expression.
Conclusion: These data indicate that the mutations in AXIN1 and AXIN2 may contribute to gastric carcino-genesis.