Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is the fourth largest crop worldwide in yield, and cv. Kuras is the major starch potato of northern Europe. Storage starch is packed densely in tuber amyloplasts, which become starch granules. Amyloplasts of soil-grown mini-tubers and agar-grown micro-tubers of cv. Kuras were purified. The mini-tuber amyloplast preparation was enriched 10-20-fold and the micro-tuber amyloplast approximately fivefold over comparative total protein extracts. Proteins separated by SDS-PAGE were digested with trypsin, analysed by mass spectrometry and identified by mascot software searches against an in-house potato protein database and the NCBI non-redundant plant database. The differential growth conditions for mini- and micro-tubers gave rise to rather different protein profiles, but the major starch granule-bound proteins were identical for both and dominated by granule-bound starch synthase I, starch synthase II and alpha-glucan water dikinase. Soluble proteins were dominated by starch phosphorylase L-1, other large proteins of the classes 'starch and sucrose metabolism', 'pentose phosphate pathway', 'glycolysis', 'amino acid metabolism', and other proteins such as plastid chaperonins. The majority of the identified proteins had a predicted plastid transit peptide, supporting their presence in the amyloplast. However, several highly expressed proteins had no transit peptide, such as starch phosphorylase H, or had a predicted mitochondrial location. Intriguingly, all polyphenol oxidases, a family of enolases, one transketolase, sulfite reductase, deoxynucleoside kinase-like and dihydroxy-acid dehydrase had twin-arginine translocation motifs, and a homologue to dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase had a Sec (secretory) motif; these motifs usually target thylakoid-like structures.