SC-35 is a non-snRNP spliceosome component that is specifically recognized by the anti-spliceosome monoclonal antibody alpha SC-35. In this paper we provide direct evidence that SC-35 is an essential splicing factor and we examine the immunolocalization of SC-35 by confocal laser scanning microscopy and by electron microscopy. We have found that the speckled staining pattern observed by fluorescence microscopy corresponds to structures previously designated as interchromatin granules and perichromatin fibrils. Although snRNP antigens are also concentrated in these nuclear regions, we show that the two types of spliceosome components are localized through different molecular interactions: The distribution of SC-35 was not affected by treatment with DNase I or RNase A, or when the cells were heat shocked. In contrast, snRNP antigens become diffusely distributed after RNase A digestion or heat shock. Examination of cells at different stages of mitosis revealed that the SC-35 speckled staining pattern is lost during prophase and speckles containing SC-35 begin to reform in the cytoplasm of anaphase cells. In contrast, snRNP antigens do not associate with speckled regions until late in telophase. These studies reveal a dynamic pattern of assembly and disassembly of the splicing factor SC-35 into discrete nuclear structures that colocalize with interchromatin granules and perichromatin fibrils. These subnuclear regions may therefore be nuclear organelles involved in the assembly of spliceosomes, or splicing itself.