Aims: To evaluate the influence of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 inhibitors on the clinical pharmacokinetics of maraviroc, a novel CCR5 antagonist.
Methods: Four open-label, randomized, placebo-controlled studies were conducted in healthy subjects to assess the effect of separate and distinct combinations of CYP3A4 inhibitors on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of maraviroc. Study 1 was a two-way crossover study investigating the influence of saquinavir (SQV; 1200 mg t.i.d.) and ketoconazole (400 mg q.d.) on the pharmacokinetics of maraviroc (100 mg b.i.d.). All subjects received maraviroc for 7 days in both study periods. Cohort 1 subjects also received SQV or placebo and cohort 2 subjects also received ketoconazole or placebo. Study 2 was a parallel-group study including four treatment groups investigating the effects of ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r; 400 mg/100 mg b.i.d.), ritonavir-boosted saquinavir (SQV/r; 1000 mg/100 mg b.i.d.), and low-dose ritonavir (RTV; 100 mg b.i.d.) on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of maraviroc (100 mg b.i.d.), and exploring whether maraviroc dose adjustment can compensate for interaction effects. Treatment lasted 28 days and comprised three distinct phases: (i) maraviroc alone on days 1-7; (ii) maraviroc + interactant on days 8-21; and (iii) maraviroc (adjusted dose) + interactant on days 22-28. Study 3 was a two-way crossover study investigating the effects of atazanavir (ATZ; 400 mg q.d.) and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATZ/r; 300 mg/100 mg b.i.d.) on the pharmacokinetics of maraviroc (300 mg b.i.d.). All subjects received maraviroc on days 1-14 of both study periods. Subjects also received ATZ on days 1-7 and ATZ/r on days 8-14 of one treatment period, and placebo on days 1-14 of the other treatment period. Study 4 was a two-way crossover study investigating the effects of ritonavir-boosted tipranavir (TPV/r; 500 mg/200 mg b.i.d.) on the pharmacokinetics of maraviroc (150 mg b.i.d.). Subjects received maraviroc plus TPV/r or placebo on days 1-8.
Results: All of the drugs/drug combinations tested (except for TPV/r) increased maraviroc exposure, albeit to different degrees of magnitude. SQV/r caused the largest increase in maraviroc exposure (8.3-fold increase in AUC(tau)), whereas RTV caused the smallest increase in maraviroc exposure (2.6-fold increase in AUC(tau)). Downward adjustment of the maraviroc dose in study 2 during co-administration of HIV protease inhibitors was able to compensate for the interactions. TPV/r had no clinically relevant effect on maraviroc exposure at steady state. There were no treatment-related serious adverse events or discontinuations due to adverse events in any of the studies, and most adverse events were mild or moderate in severity and resolved without intervention.
Conclusions: Potent CYP3A4 inhibitors, including ketoconazole and protease inhibitors (except TPV/r), increase maraviroc exposure. Downward adjustment of the maraviroc dose during co-administration with protease inhibitors can compensate for the interaction. TPV/r does not affect the steady-state pharmacokinetics of maraviroc, and hence no dose adjustment would be warranted.