LDL has been widely recognized as the major atherogenic lipoprotein and designated as the primary target for prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD); however, there is growing evidence that other triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, such as very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL) carry atherogenic potential as well. This led to the designation of non-HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) (LDL + IDL + VLDL) as a secondary target of treatment for hyperlipidaemia. As each one of LDL, IDL and VLDL particles carries only one apolipoprotein B-100 (ApoB-100) molecule, the total ApoB value represents the total number of potentially atherogenic lipoproteins, whereas non-HDL-C provides the cholesterol content of these same lipoproteins. Recent data from epidemiological, observational and interventional studies suggest that non-HDL-C, apolipoproteins ApoA1 and ApoB may improve CHD risk assessment by identifying more high-risk individuals than the usual lipid profile alone. However, the targets for the optimal treatment of dyslipidaemia remain a subject of considerable debate. Further studies are needed to determine whether ApoB and ApoA1 are superior to conventional lipid parameters as predictors of cardiovascular disease or therapeutic targets of hyperlipidaemias. In this review, we summarize the current opinions on the use of ApoA1 and ApoB values as estimates of cardiovascular risk or as treatment goals in patients undergoing treatment for hyperlipidaemia.