Intrauterine growth restriction: fetal programming of hypertension and kidney disease

Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2008 Apr;15(2):101-6. doi: 10.1053/j.ackd.2008.01.001.


The etiology of hypertension historically includes 2 components: genetics and lifestyle. However, recent epidemiologic studies report an inverse relationship between birth weight and hypertension suggesting that a suboptimal fetal environment may also contribute to increased disease in later life. Experimental studies support this observation and indicate that cardiovascular/kidney disease originates in response to fetal adaptations to adverse conditions during prenatal life.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Female
  • Fetal Growth Retardation / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Renal / etiology*
  • Hypertension, Renal / physiopathology
  • Pregnancy
  • Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects / physiopathology*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / etiology*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / physiopathology