Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common type of bacterial infection contracted by recipients of renal allografts in the post-transplantation period. Fungi and viruses can also cause UTIs, but infections caused by these organisms are less common than those caused by bacteria. Both the lower and upper urinary tract (encompassing grafted or native kidneys) can be affected. Factors that might contribute to the development of UTIs include excessive immunosuppression, and instrumentation of the urinary tract (e.g. urethral catheters and ureteric stents). Antimicrobials are the mainstays of treatment and should be accompanied by minimization of immunosuppression when possible. The use of long-term antimicrobial prophylaxis is controversial, however, as it might increase the likelihood of infective organisms becoming resistant to treatment. There are conflicting data on the associations of post-transplantation UTI with graft and patient survival.