This article represents the sixth annual review of the current state of pediatric transplantation in the United States from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients (SRTR). It presents updated trends, discussion of analyses presented during the year by the SRTR to the committees of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) and discussion of important issues currently facing pediatric organ transplantation. Unless otherwise stated, the statistics in this article are drawn from the reference tables of the 2007 OPTN/SRTR Annual Report. In this article, pediatric patients are defined as candidates, recipients or donors aged 17 years or less. Data for both graft and patient survival are reported as unadjusted survival, unless otherwise stated (adjusted patient and graft survival are available in the reference tables). Short-term survival (3 month and 1 year) reflects outcomes for transplants performed in 2004 and 2005; 3-year survival reflects transplants from 2002 to 2005; and 5-year survival reports on transplants performed from 2000 to 2005. Details on the methods of analysis employed may be found in the reference tables themselves or in the technical notes of the 2007 OTPN/SRTR Annual Report, both available online at http://www.ustransplant.org.