A previously proteomic study from our laboratory showed that the expression of the protein of the GABA A receptor beta1 subunit was significantly increased in the retina of EAAC1-deficient (EAAC1-/-) mice, a mouse model of glaucoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role played by GABA A receptor beta1 subunit in the death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) caused by oxidative stress. The retinal sites and expression pattern of GABA A receptor beta1 subunit were determined by immunohistochemistry in the retina of ICR mice. A RGC line, RGC-5, was exposed to GABA A receptor agonist and antagonist, and the cell viability was determined by the MTS assay. The effect of GABA A receptor antagonist on the death of RGCs, and the activation of oxidative stress signaling induced by hydrogen peroxide was investigated. Our results showed that the GABA A receptor beta1 subunit was expressed on the RGCs of ICR mice. GABA A receptor agonist induced RGCs death, and this death was inhibited by bicuculline, a GABA A receptor antagonist. The hydrogen peroxide-induced death of RGCs was reduced by GABA A receptor antagonist, and the oxidative stress signaling activated by hydrogen peroxide was also inhibited. These results indicate that GABA A receptors are expressed on RGCs and may play a role in the death of RGCs induced by oxidative stress.