Secondary hyperparathyroidism is associated with mortality in patients undergoing maintenance dialysis treatment. We studied 515 male US veterans with chronic kidney disease, who were not yet on dialysis, to see what outcomes were associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism in this population. Relationships between intact parathyroid hormone levels and all-cause mortality along with the composite of mortality or incidence of dialysis were measured in unadjusted and adjusted Cox models for case-mix and laboratory variables. Elevated parathyroid hormone levels above the upper limit compared to the lower limit of the normal range were significantly associated with mortality after adjustments. Higher intact parathyroid hormone levels in the upper limit of normal were significantly associated with higher mortality overall and showed similar trends in subgroups of patients with stage 3 and stage 4-5 chronic kidney disease and with higher and lower serum calcium and phosphorus levels. Similar associations were found with the composite outcome of mortality or dialysis. Our study shows that secondary hyperparathyroidism is independently associated with higher mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease but not yet on dialysis.