Melatonin protects against hippocampal injury induced by intermittent hypoxia (IH). IH-induced oxidative stress is associated with decreases in constitutive production of nitric oxide (NO) and in the activity of large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels in hippocampal neurons. We tested the hypothesis that administration of melatonin alleviates the NO deficit and impaired BK channel activity in the hippocampus of IH rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle before daily IH exposure for 8 hr for 7 days. The NO and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) levels in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices were measured by electrochemical microsenor and spectrofluorometry, respectively. The activity of BK channels was recorded by patch-clamping electrophysiology in dissociated CA1 neurons. Malondialdehyde levels were increased in the hippocampus of hypoxic rats and were lowered by the melatonin treatment. Levels of NO under resting and hypoxic conditions, and the protein expression of neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) were significantly reduced in the CA1 neurons of hypoxic animals compared with the normoxic controls. These deficits were mitigated in the melatonin-treated hypoxic rats with an improved [Ca2+]i response to acute hypoxia. The open probability of BK channels was decreased in the hypoxic rats and was partially restored in the melatonin-treated animals, without alterations in the expression of channel subunits and unitary conductance. Acute treatment of melatonin had no significant effects on the BK channel activity or on the [Ca2+]i response to hypoxia. Collectively, these results suggest that melatonin ameliorates the constitutive NO production and BK channel activity via an antioxidant mechanism against an IH-induced down-regulation of nNOS expression in hippocampal neurons.