Iimmune regulatory proteins such as CIITA, NAIP, IPAF, NOD1, NOD2, NALP1, cryopyrin/NALP3 are members of a family characterized by the presence of a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and leucine-rich repeats (LRR). Members of this gene family encode a protein structure similar to the NB-LRR subgroup of disease-resistance genes in plants and are involved in the sensing of pathogenic products and the regulation of cell signaling and apoptosis. Several members of this family have been associated with immunologic disorders. NOD2 for instance is associated with both Crohn's disease and Blau syndrome. A variety of different names are currently used to describe this gene family, its subfamilies and individual genes, including CATERPILLER (CLR), NOD-LRR, NACHT-LRR, CARD, NALP, NOD, PAN and PYPAF, and this lack of consistency has led to a pressing need to unify the nomenclature. Consequently, we collectively propose the family designation NLR (nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing) and provide unique and standardized gene designations for all family members.