The PERK/eIF2 alpha signaling pathway of Unfolded Protein Response is essential for N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4HPR)-induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells

Exp Cell Res. 2008 May 1;314(8):1667-82. doi: 10.1016/j.yexcr.2008.02.002. Epub 2008 Mar 14.


N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4HPR) is a synthetic retinoid that has been tested in clinical trials as a cancer chemopreventive drug. 4HPR is cytotoxic to cancer cells but the underlying molecular mechanisms are at present only partially understood. Here we demonstrate that in the human cervical cancer cell line HeLa and the human leukemia cell line HL-60, 4HPR caused rapid, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-dependent activation of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). In HeLa cells, 4HPR was shown to induce cell death and activation of procaspases. These effects of 4HPR could be abolished by the over-expression of dominant negative mutants of PERK or eIF2 alpha. HeLa cells incubated with 4HPR were found to form autophagosomes that were also mediated by the PERK/eIF2 alpha pathway. While 4HPR-induced cell death could be significantly prevented by the presence of specific caspase inhibitors, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) that inhibits autophagosome formation enhanced 4HPR-induced cell death. Examination of individual 4HPR-treated HeLa cells revealed that those without the development of autophagosomes hence exhibiting an incomplete UPR were caspase-active and were not viable, while those with autophagosomes were caspase-inactive and retained cell viability. Our data suggest that the PERK/eIF2 alpha pathway is essential for the cytotoxicity of 4HPR that targets on cancer cells with malfunctional UPR.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Activating Transcription Factor 6 / metabolism
  • Anticarcinogenic Agents / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Anticarcinogenic Agents / toxicity*
  • Apoptosis
  • Autophagy
  • Caspase 3 / metabolism
  • Caspase 9 / metabolism
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum / metabolism
  • Enzyme Precursors / metabolism
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2 / genetics
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2 / metabolism*
  • Fenretinide / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Fenretinide / toxicity*
  • HL-60 Cells
  • HeLa Cells
  • Humans
  • Molecular Chaperones / metabolism
  • Mutation
  • Phagosomes / metabolism
  • Protein Folding
  • RNA Splicing
  • Regulatory Factor X Transcription Factors
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • eIF-2 Kinase / genetics
  • eIF-2 Kinase / metabolism*


  • ATF6 protein, human
  • Activating Transcription Factor 6
  • Anticarcinogenic Agents
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Enzyme Precursors
  • Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-2
  • Molecular Chaperones
  • Regulatory Factor X Transcription Factors
  • Transcription Factors
  • Fenretinide
  • PERK kinase
  • eIF-2 Kinase
  • Caspase 3
  • Caspase 9