Functional characterization of the CgPGS1 gene reveals a link between mitochondrial phospholipid homeostasis and drug resistance in Candida glabrata

Curr Genet. 2008 May;53(5):313-22. doi: 10.1007/s00294-008-0187-9. Epub 2008 Mar 15.


Cardiolipin and its precursor phosphatidylglycerol are two anionic phospholipids that are essential for the biogenesis of functional mitochondria. To assess their role in mitochondrial and cellular functions in the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata, a functional characterization of the CgPGS1 gene encoding the phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase has been carried out. Transposon insertion mutation in CgPGS1 resulted in the loss of phosphatidylglycerolphosphate synthase activity and in deficiency of both phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. The Cgpgs1 Delta mutant cells displayed reduced amounts of cytochrome b and cytochrome a, and had impaired growth on minimal media containing non-fermentable carbon and energy sources. They did not grow at elevated temperatures and failed to form colonies after induction of mitochondrial DNA deletions. The mutant cells also displayed a decreased susceptibility to fluconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, voriconazole and posaconazole. In the Cgpgs1 Delta mutant, a quantitative real time PCR revealed enhanced mRNA levels for multidrug resistance associated genes such as CgPDR1 encoding transcriptional activator and CgCDR1, CgPDH1 and CgSNQ2 coding for drug efflux transporters. These results indicate that CgPGS1 and anionic phospholipids are required for optimal mitochondrial functions and maintenance of yeast susceptibility to azole antifungals.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Candida glabrata / genetics*
  • Candida glabrata / metabolism
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • Drug Resistance, Fungal / genetics*
  • Genetic Linkage
  • Genotype
  • Homeostasis / genetics
  • Intramolecular Oxidoreductases / genetics*
  • Intramolecular Oxidoreductases / metabolism
  • Lipocalins / genetics*
  • Lipocalins / metabolism
  • Mitochondria / genetics
  • Mitochondria / metabolism*
  • Mutant Proteins / genetics
  • Mutant Proteins / metabolism
  • Phospholipids / metabolism*


  • Lipocalins
  • Mutant Proteins
  • Phospholipids
  • Intramolecular Oxidoreductases
  • prostaglandin R2 D-isomerase