Barriers to glaucoma drug delivery

J Glaucoma. 2008 Mar;17(2):147-56. doi: 10.1097/IJG.0b013e31814b990d.


Topical medications remain the mainstay of glaucoma treatment. This review will aim to cover the pharmacokinetics of topically applied drops, the ocular barriers to drug delivery, and the role of ophthalmic drug formulation in enhancing drug delivery to the target tissue while minimizing side effects and increasing patient compliance. Recent advances in surgical techniques, therapeutic approaches, and material sciences have produced exciting new therapies for ocular diseases. The development of new vehicles and drug formulations that require less patient compliance is also discussed, as are the routes of drug delivery for neuroprotection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Absorption
  • Administration, Topical
  • Animals
  • Antihypertensive Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Antihypertensive Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Biological Availability
  • Drug Delivery Systems*
  • Glaucoma / drug therapy*
  • Glaucoma / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Ophthalmic Solutions / administration & dosage*
  • Ophthalmic Solutions / pharmacokinetics
  • Pharmaceutical Vehicles


  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Ophthalmic Solutions
  • Pharmaceutical Vehicles