Aim: To verify whether different hyperglycemia levels during pregnancy cause frequency differences in adolescent obesity and its morbidities in the offspring.
Methods: Seventy-three children were divided into three groups according to maternal glucose tolerance: G1 (n=27) normal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and daily glycemia (DG); G2 (n=23) normal OGTT and high DG; G3 (n=23) abnormal OGTT and DG (gestational diabetes mellitus; GDM). All underwent clinical evaluation (anthropometry) a questionnaire(neonatal data, eating habits), and determination of fasting serum glucose and lipid profile measurement. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Goodmans test were used to compare the groups.
Results: G3 mothers showed higher fasting plasma glucose(FPG) and DG than G2 and G1(FPG: 93+/-10 vs 83+/-5 vs 78+/-10 mg/dL; DG: 104+/-12 vs 93+/-7 vs 85+/-9 mg/dL, respectively; P<0.001). G2 mothers had higher DG than G1 (93+/-7 vs 85+/-9 mg/dL; P<0.001). G3 offspring birthweight was higher than G1 and G2 (3,667+/-527 vs 3,167+/-565 and 3,282+/-401 g, respectively; P<0.05). More G3 offspring were overweight than G1 (52.2 vs 14.8%; P<0.05).
Conclusions: Offspring of GDM mothers with fasting and daily hyperglycemia have higher birthweight and overweight frequency in adolescence. These children must be followed up from infancy.