Preliminary evidence that morning vaccination is associated with an enhanced antibody response in men

Psychophysiology. 2008 Jul;45(4):663-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2008.00662.x. Epub 2008 Mar 11.


Variation in response to vaccination, particularly in vulnerable groups, provides a strong rationale for developing vaccine adjuvants. If there were consistent diurnal variation in immune response, this could inform a simple intervention for enhancing vaccine efficacy. Data from two studies are presented examining morning versus afternoon vaccine administration; in the first, hepatitis A vaccine was administered to young adults, and in the second, influenza vaccine to older community-based adults. Men, but not women, vaccinated in the morning mounted a better peak antibody response to both hepatitis A and the A/Panama influenza strain. These results indicate that it would be worthwhile testing this effect in a large randomized control trial with vaccination during time periods representing the extremes of hormonal and cytokine diurnal rhythms.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antibody Formation / physiology*
  • Female
  • Hepatitis A Antibodies / biosynthesis
  • Hepatitis A Vaccines / immunology
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Time Factors
  • Vaccination / psychology*


  • Hepatitis A Antibodies
  • Hepatitis A Vaccines