Comprehensive study of the parameters influencing the detection of organotin compounds by a pulsed flame photometric detector in sewage sludge

J Chromatogr A. 2008 Apr 25;1188(2):281-5. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2008.02.079. Epub 2008 Mar 2.


An investigation of the operating conditions of a pulsed flame photometric detection (PFPD) system for the determination of organotin compounds (OTCs) in sewage sludge is reported. During the analyses, some spectral interferences were observed. For their elimination detector parameters such as gate delay and gate width were investigated. In addition, the applicability of three different internal standards was evaluated. Under optimised analytical conditions (gate delay 3 ms, gate width 2 ms, tripropyltin as internal standard) limits of detection (LOD) were determined. The LOD for butyltins ranged between 8 and 16 ng Sn g(-1), for phenyltins around 8 ng Sn g(-1) and for octyltins between 5 and 10 ng Sn g(-1). Since there is no certified reference material (CRM) available for sewage sludge, the accuracy of the analytical procedure was checked by the analysis of CRM PACS-2 (marine sediment) and a spiked sludge sample. Good agreement between determined and certified values was obtained. Sewage sludge from a local wastewater treatment plant was analysed and the results compared with data from the literature.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Buffers
  • Flame Ionization
  • Organotin Compounds / analysis*
  • Photometry / instrumentation*
  • Reference Standards
  • Sewage / chemistry*
  • Tin / analysis
  • Water / chemistry


  • Buffers
  • Organotin Compounds
  • Sewage
  • Water
  • Tin