T cells help to amplify inflammatory responses induced by Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in the intestinal mucosa

Infect Immun. 2008 May;76(5):2008-17. doi: 10.1128/IAI.01691-07. Epub 2008 Mar 17.


Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium causes an acute inflammatory reaction in the ceca of streptomycin-pretreated mice. We determined global changes in gene expression elicited by serotype Typhimurium in the cecal mucosa. The gene expression profile was dominated by T-cell-derived cytokines and genes whose expression is known to be induced by these cytokines. Markedly increased mRNA levels of genes encoding gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), interleukin-22 (IL-22), and IL-17 were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of genes whose expression is induced by IFN-gamma, IL-22, or IL-17, including genes encoding macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (Nos2), lipocalin-2 (Lcn2), MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta, and keratinocyte-derived cytokine (KC), were also markedly increased. To assess the importance of T cells in orchestrating this proinflammatory gene expression profile, we depleted T cells by using a monoclonal antibody prior to investigating cecal inflammation caused by serotype Typhimurium in streptomycin-pretreated mice. Depletion of CD3+ T cells resulted in a dramatic reduction in gross pathology, a significantly reduced recruitment of neutrophils, and a marked reduction in mRNA levels of Ifn-gamma, Il-22, Il-17, Nos2, Lcn2, and Kc. Our results suggest that T cells play an important role in amplifying inflammatory responses induced by serotype Typhimurium in the cecal mucosa.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute-Phase Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Acute-Phase Proteins / genetics
  • Animals
  • CD3 Complex / immunology
  • Cecum / immunology
  • Cecum / microbiology
  • Cecum / pathology
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Inflammation / immunology*
  • Inflammation / microbiology*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / immunology*
  • Intestinal Mucosa / microbiology
  • Intestinal Mucosa / pathology*
  • Lipocalin-2
  • Lipocalins / biosynthesis
  • Lipocalins / genetics
  • Lymphocyte Depletion
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Neutrophils / immunology
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / biosynthesis
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / genetics
  • Oncogene Proteins / biosynthesis
  • Oncogene Proteins / genetics
  • Salmonella Infections, Animal / immunology*
  • Salmonella Infections, Animal / microbiology
  • Salmonella Infections, Animal / pathology*
  • Salmonella typhimurium / immunology*
  • T-Lymphocyte Subsets / immunology


  • Acute-Phase Proteins
  • CD3 Complex
  • Cytokines
  • Lipocalin-2
  • Lipocalins
  • Oncogene Proteins
  • Lcn2 protein, mouse
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
  • Nos2 protein, mouse

Associated data

  • GEO/GSE10594