Muscle loss with age has a negative effect on strength and functional independence. Age-related loss of muscle is the result of decreased muscle fiber number and size, which are functions of altered hormonal status, physical inactivity, and variations in nutritional intake. Resistance training has a positive effect on muscle mass and strength in the elderly. Studies of protein or creatine supplementation for increasing muscle mass and strength in older individuals are equivocal. The timing of nutritional supplementation may be more important than the absolute daily intake of supplements. Protein or creatine ingestion proximate to resistance-training sessions may be more beneficial for increasing muscle mass and strength than ingestion of protein or creatine at other times of the day, possibly because of increased blood flow and therefore increased transport of amino acids and creatine to skeletal muscle.